A share is a unit of prize that miners earn by submitting proofs of work (the result of hashing) to the pool. The term “share” originates from the prize system of proportional pools, whose total earnings are distributed among miners ter proportion to the number of shares they submit. Te a PPS (pay-per-share) system, shares are paid directly to miners, indipendently of how many blocks the pool actually finds. The value of a share depends on two factors: the network difficulty and the share difficulty.

What is the network difficulty?

The network difficulty is a number that gives an indication of how difficult it is to find a block. For Example, the Litecoin network automatically adjusts its difficulty every few days so that blocks are found on average every Two.Five minutes. This means that the more hashing power is on Litecoin, the stiffer it is to find a block.

What is the share difficulty?

The share difficulty is a number that gives an indication of how difficult it is to find a share. The lower this number, the more shares a miner will find at a given speed, and the lower their value. For this reason, the share difficulty does not affect miners’ expected earnings. Why does the pool report more shares than my miner? This pool serves variable-difficulty work units, so when you solve a share the pool counts it with multiplicity, according to its difficulty. For example, if you solve a share that is four times spil difficult spil the baseline share, it gets counted spil four shares.

Why variable-difficulty shares?

The mechanism of adapting the difficulty to each miner’s hash rate permits the pool to measure workers’ speed more precisely while keeping bandwidth usage optimal. How does share difficulty influence my earnings? Brief response: it doesn’t. Long response: a higher/lower share difficulty does not mean you will be earning more/less, because your expected earnings are independent of the share difficulty: they only depend on your hash rate and on the network difficulty. A higher share difficulty can only increase the variance, but not te a significant way.

Is it possible to set the share difficulty by hand?

Yes, but it’s usually pointless, spil the pool can automatically serve work of optimal difficulty. Some pools suggest alternate ports for difficulty levels. Check with your pool for details.

How is the value of a share (a.k.a. the PPS rate) computed?

For example, again using Litecoin, the standard PPS formula is used: BS R / ND (SD / 65536), where BS is the block subsidy (presently 50 LTC), R is the PPS ratio (presently 1.25), ND is the network difficulty, and SD is the share difficulty (voiced spil a numerous of the ondergrens share difficulty, which is what cgminer displays).

A PPS ratio of 1 (or 100%) corresponds to the expected earnings of a Litecoin solo miner te an ideal world, without taking into account aspects such spil orphaned blocks. (Ter practice, a Litecoin solo miner will always achieve a slightly lower ratio ter the long run.) Wij say “expected” earnings because mining is a stochastic (random) process, and it is therefore unlikely to know beforehand exactly how much a miner will earn ter a given lapse of time. Thanks to merged mining, a mechanism that permits numerous cryptocurrencies to be mined at the same time, it is possible to achieve PPS ratios higher than 100%. This is unrelated to what profit-switching pools do, spil ter merged mining all chains are mined at the same time. For this reason, merged mining does not cause unexpected difficulty spikes and does not harm any of the involved networks.

How and when does the PPS ratio switch?

The PPS ratio depends on factors such spil the current network difficulty and market price of merged-mined cryptocurrencies. Since thesis elements can be very volatile, the ratio can switch frequently.

Do block finders get reserve prize ter PPS pools?

No. That would go against one of the main goals of the PPS system, which is to minimize variance. It would also make miners who don’t find blocks earn less, spil the PPS rate would need to be adjusted downwards. Some do list recently found blocks and their finders, but only for transparency purposes.

I’ve just commenced mining and all my shares are being rejected, what’s wrong?

Make sure that your hardware and software support scrypt mining, and that they are configured correctly. Configuring a GPU for Litecoin mining requires particular attention, please refer to our configuration wizard to get an idea of what settings you need.

Why doesn’t the hash rate reported by the pool match that reported by my miner?

Because of how pooled mining works, the pool has no way of knowing your precies hash rate, so it can only estimate it based on how frequently you submit shares. After you begin mining, it takes about Ten minutes for the estimates to become accurate. They will never be very precise, tho’, even if your miner’s hash rate is sustained, the pool estimate will keep fluctuating around the actual speed.

The pool keeps reporting a much lower hash rate than cgminer. What’s going on?

If the estimate displayed on the webpagina stays too low for more than Ten minutes, then you are almost certainly experiencing hardware errors. cgminer checks every solution generated by your hardware devices, and if one turns out to be incorrect because of hardware errors it (rightfully) doesn’t even submit it. Since pools can only estimate your hash rate based on how many solutions you submit te a given amount of time, their estimate will be lower than your real raw hashrate. This raw hashrate, which is correctly displayed by cgminer, is, however, not meaningful if the solutions your card generates are wrong. You need to make sure that all (not just the top one) of the HW figures te cgminer are zero or next-to-zero, if that’s not the case, you need to review your settings. Make sure you cautiously read the documentation about scrypt mining provided with cgminer.

Servers provide each miner with some unique gegevens that the miner vereiste use to find a share. This gegevens needs to be updated every time a fresh block emerges on the Litecoin network, and that’s why servers vereiste promptly notify miners when they detect a fresh block. Every 2nd you keep on mining for the old block is wasted, because that block has already bot found. If a fresh block is found before a submitted share hits the server, the share is marked spil “stale”, and yields no prize. Stale shares are caused by latency, which can toebijten at various levels. The most visible cause is a high ping time to the server, which however shouldn’t affect the stale rate by more than 0.5%.

I’m getting more than 2% of stale shares, is this normal?

No. On our Stratum servers, most miners achieve a stale rate well below 1%. If you’re GPU mining, make sure the power parameter is not set too high on your miners. More generally, consider that anything that thrusts your hardware too much can cause extra latency, which results ter a higher rate of stale shares. Some software latency is sometimes unavoidable when GPU mining, but if your stale rate is above 2% then something most likely needs to be immobile. Should I set the –no-submit-stale option ter cgminer? The –no-submit-stale option tells cgminer to skip the obedience of shares that it detects spil stale. You should only set it after you have made sure that your other settings, such spil strength, aren’t causing too much latency locally. Note that some of your submitted shares will still turn stale because of network latency, which is unavoidable.

Stratum is a network protocol for pooled mining, designed spil a replacement for the now obsolete “getwork” protocol. It wasgoed originally proposed by Marek Palatinus (aka Slush), who also wrote a proxy for miners that could only understand the getwork protocol. Today most mining software supports the Stratum protocol natively, but the Stratum proxy is still useful for reducing network bandwidth usage on large installations.

What is the “resume” extension to Stratum?

It is an extension to the original Stratum mining protocol, jointly designed by Slush and ckolivas, the maintainer of cgminer. If your mining pool supports the extension and your Internet connection has a hiccup, the server may still accept any shares that your miners found while disconnected, if they reconnect and submit them within a reasonable time. Spil plain spil this may sound, it is actually tricky to implement this feature correctly, because Stratum is not a stateless protocol.

Thank you for supporting PIMP!

melt (CEO &, Co-founder, Portable Instant Mining Verhoging)

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